Makahiki: Hawaiian Sports and Data

Data & Analysis - Evidence Based Claims

Explore Makahiki through the collection and analysis of data using spreadsheets and games


This six lesson module is designed for students in grade 5 to meet both computer science and social studies educational standards. As part of this module, students will be experiencing culturally relevant pedagogy and working to make connections between their own lives and stories and the lives and stories of the early Hawaiians. 

In this module, students will be introduced to the concept of data and the visualization of data. They will learn how to transfer data to a Google sheet and create tables, bar graphs, and pie charts using premade data. They will then apply this knowledge to existing data about Makahiki games and play a racing game simulation to discuss observations as a class. Additionally, students will learn about the different jobs that utilize data and how it can be used to make decisions to improve communities.

Student Objectives

  • Describe the need for collecting data and organizing it into graphs and charts
  • Enter data into a Google spreadsheet
  • Create individual charts in Google spreadsheet and customize features on graphs (titles, colors, percentages, etc..)
  • Explain the significance of Makahiki in early Hawaiian society and make connections to present-day activities that involve community activities and celebrations
  • Write claims based on the observed data and make predictions regarding outcomes.
  • Research jobs in the community that utilize data

Critical Consciousness Statement

“Studying data can not only solve problems and lead to discoveries, but also facilitate a deeper understanding of real-world patterns, enabling individuals to make useful claims and equipping students with valuable skills to better serve their communities.

CSTA K-12 CS Standards

Standard Description
1B-DA-06 Organize and present collected data visually to highlight relationships and support a claim.
1B-DA-07  Use data to highlight or propose cause-and-effect relationships, predict outcomes, or communicate an idea.

Hawaiʻi Core Standards for Social Studies

Standard Description
Theme 7 4th Grade Geography Anchor Standard 14 Human-Environment Interaction: Place, Regions and Culture 

Content Standard SS. Use maps and illustrations to explain how Hawaiians used and modified land in the ahupua‘a

  •  Use of the Land: highlands (mauka): farming, feathers, freshwater sourcing, medicines, wood; lowlands (makai): farming, fishing, limu, shellfish
  • Modifications of the Land: clearing of land for farming, terracing, creating fishponds (loko i‘a), diverting water through canals (ʻauwai) for irrigation of terraced kalo plantings (loʻi)  
Theme 8 4th Grade Civics Anchor Standard 8 Processes, Rules, and Law

Roles and Responsibilities 

Content Standard SS. Explain the roles and responsibilities of the aliʻi in governing Hawaiian society 

  • Appointing konohiki, collection of taxes, controlling the makeup of families, distributing resources, engaging in conflicts to gain mana and resources 
  • Demonstrating, maintaining, and acquiring power (mana), following the recommendations and advice of kahuna, maintaining balance and the well-being of the people (pono)  
Social Studies Inquiry Anchor Standard 3 SS.3-5.3.1 Develop claims in response to compelling questions Inquiry Standard 

SS.3-5.3.2 Identify specific evidence that supports the claims 

Nā Hopena Aʻo (Hā)

Standard Description
Belonging I stand firm in my space with a strong foundation of relationships. A sense of Belonging is demonstrated through an understanding of lineage and place and a connection to past, present, and future. I am able to interact respectfully for the betterment of self and others.

  • Students will be able to research jobs in the community that utilize data.
Responsibility I willingly carry my responsibility for self, family, community and the larger society. A sense of Responsibility is demonstrated by a commitment and concern for others. I am mindful of the values, needs and welfare of others.
Excellence I believe I can succeed in school and life and am inspired to care about the quality of my work. A sense of Excellence is demonstrated by a love of learning and the pursuit of skills, knowledge and behaviors to reach my potential. I am able to take intellectual risks and strive beyond what is expected.
Aloha I show care and respect for myself, families, and communities. A sense of Aloha is demonstrated through empathy and appreciation for the symbiotic relationship between all. I am able to build trust and lead for the good of the whole.
Total Well-being I learn about and practice a healthy lifestyle. A sense of Total Well-being is demonstrated by making choices that improve the mind, body, heart and spirit. I am able to meet the demands of school and life while contributing to the wellbeing of family, ‘āina, community and world.
Hawai‘i I am enriched by the uniqueness of this prized place. A sense of Hawai‘i is demonstrated through an appreciation for its rich history, diversity and indigenous language and culture. I am able to navigate effectively across cultures and communities and be a steward of the homeland.

Funding Note

nsf logo

This work was supported by the National Science Foundation’s
Division of Research on Learning (Grant #2122874).

This module was created and evaluated by Kawika Gonzales, Priscilla Wang, and Maya Carter. Please contact or visit for any inquiries.