The original research on CREDE began in the State of Hawaiʻi in the 1970s as the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). This research was adapted to other indigenous educational settings including Native American schools and later adapted to over 31 sites throughout the world. From this research, several principles emerged as consistent throughout the various cultures and were equally emphasized in educational literature as best practices for culturally and linguistically diverse learners. These principles developed into the CREDE Standards for Effective Pedagogy.

To prepare classrooms for small group Instructional Conversations, CREDE utilizes a phasing-in process. Phasing in includes creating classroom community values. Lessons include a briefing and debriefing. In the later phases, there are independent activity centers where students can practice skills and a teacher center where the teacher can teach content to a small group of students. The teacher center later transitions to an Instructional Conversation where collaboration takes place, meaningful participation is encouraged, and connections are made between the subject matter and students’ experiences.

CREDE professional development materials include rubrics which describe the CREDE Standards and rotation charts which help teachers structure student groupings for centers.

Resources related to these topics can be found on the Teacher Resources page.

CREDE Standards:

Collaborating with students on a joint product

Video examples

Developing students’ competence in the language and literacy of instruction in all content areas of the curriculum

Video examples

Connecting the school curriculum to students’ prior knowledge and experiences from their home, school, and community

Video examples

Challenging students’ thinking toward cognitive complexity

Video examples

Teaching students through dialogue

The two main features of this small group discussion are identified in the name: Instructional and Conversational

Video examples

Instructional Conversations for Equitable Participation (ICEPs) build on this Instructional Conversation Standard. ICEPs are Instructional Conversations that foster meaningful participation by being collaborative and connected to students’ prior knowledge and everyday experiences.

ICEP Open Educational Resource

Promoting student learning through observation

This standard was added for early childhood classrooms.

Video examples

Encouraging student decision-making and self-regulated learning

This standard was added for early childhood classrooms.

Video examples