How do we use resources to develop lesson plans?
In 2011, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR) collaborated with the Kawaihuelani Center for the Hawaiian Language to create a database of over 4000 articles from the Hawaiian-language newspapers relating to geoscience topics. Kahua A‘o website has both drawn from and added to the JIMAR database. Articles relevant to the scientific topic of the lesson are used to give cultural grounding, a sense of place, and a unique historical context. The Hawaiian-language newspapers make the science lessons more interesting and localized because they allow students to view their home through the eyes of their ancestors.
I ka makahiki 2011, ua hana pū ‘o Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (JIMAR) me ke Kikowaena ‘Ōlelo Hawai‘i ‘o Kawaihuelani ma ke kūkulu ‘ana i kekahi hō‘ili‘ili o nā mo‘olelo nūpepa ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i he 4000 a ‘oi e pili ana i ka huli lani a me ka huli honua. Ma ka haku ‘ia ‘ana o nā ha‘awina a mākou, ho‘okomo ‘ia maila nā mo‘olelo nūpepa o ua hō‘ili‘ili lā, me kekahi mau mo‘olelo hou aku. Ua koho a wae ‘ia mai ho‘i nā mo‘olelo nūpepa ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i i pili i ke kumuhana akeakamai o ka ha‘awina, i pa‘a ke kahua o ia ha‘awina i ka mo‘omeheu Hawai‘i, ka ‘āina a me ke ‘ano o ka wā i hala. Hoihoi nā ha‘awina i nā mo‘olelo nūpepa, a pili ho‘i i kahi noho o kākou, i ‘ike nā haumāna i ka ‘āina ma o nā maka o nā kūpuna.
A brief history of Hawaiian language newspapers
When American missionaries arrived in 1820, one of their main goals was printing a Hawaiian-language Bible. However, first, an alphabet had to be created. Once the letters were chosen, the missionaries taught reading and writing to members of the court, and then the chiefs sent their people out to teach the citizens. Printing in the Hawaiian language began in 1822. In 1825, the new King, Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III, declared that “‘O ko‘uaupuni, he aupuni palapala ko‘u [My kingdom shall be a kingdom of literacy],” and his support for literacy continued through his reign.
In 1839, the Hawaiian-language Bible was published. And by 1861, it was thought that the literacy rate of the Hawaiian population surpassed that of all other nations except New England and Scotland.
Hawaiian-language newspapers were published from 1834 to 1948. The first newspaper, Ka Lama Hawaiʻi [The Hawaiian Luminary], was printed by the American missionary teachers at Lahainaluna Seminary. All of the newspapers were published by the missionary teachers or the Kingdom until 1861, when two independent newspapers were founded, Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika [The Star of the Pacific] and Ka Nupepa Kuokoa [The Independent Newspaper]. David Kalākaua was an editor of The Hoku, as well as several other newspapers, and was known as “The Editor King.” TheKuokoa was the longest-running newspaper, from 1861 to 1927. Many great different newspapers were published from 1861 until Ka Hoku o Hawaiʻi [The Star of Hawaii], a Hilo newspaper, which was the last Hawaiian language newspaper; publication ceased in 1948. During the 114 years in which more than 100 different newspapers were published, around 125,000 pages were printed, of which 75,000 are available online at www.nupepa.org and www.papakilodatabase.com.
Ke kāwili ‘ana i loko o nā ha‘awina he wahimo‘olelo no nā nūpepa‘ōlelo Hawai‘i
I ka hiki ‘ana mai o nā mikanele ‘Amelika i ka makahiki 1820, ‘o kekahi pahuhopu nui o lākou ke pa‘i ‘ana i ka Paipala i loko o ka ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i. Eia na‘e, ‘o ka hana mua ke kūkulu ‘ana i ka pī‘āpā. Ke koho ‘ia nā leka i ho‘okomo ai, a‘o a‘ela nā mikanele i ka palapala i nā aloali‘i, a laila, ho‘ouna akula nā ali‘i i ka po‘e o nā aloali‘i i mea e a‘o ai i nā maka‘āinana. Ho‘omaka ‘ia ke pa‘i ‘ana i loko o ka ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i i ka 1822. I ka 1825, kūkala a‘ela ka Mō‘ī hou, ‘o Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III, “‘O ko‘u aupuni, he aupuni palapala ko‘u,” a mau nō kāna paipai ‘ana i ka palapala i loko o kona wā noho ali‘i. I ka 1839, ho‘opuka ‘ia ka Paipala ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i. A i ka 1861, mana‘o ‘ia, ‘oi aku ka nui o nā kanaka i ‘ike i ka palapala ma mua o ko nā aupuni ‘ē a‘e a pau, koe ‘o ‘Enelani Hou lāua ‘o Kekokia.
Ua ho‘opuka ‘ia nā nūpepa ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i mai ka makahiki 1834 a hiki i ka 1948. Pa‘i ‘ia ka nūpepa mua, ‘o Ka Lama Hawaii, e nā kumu mikanele ‘Amelika ma ke Kulanui ‘o Lahainaluna. Ho‘opuka ‘ia a‘ela nā nūpepa a pau e nā kumu mikanele a ke Aupuni paha a hiki i ka 1861, ‘o ka makahiki ho‘i i ho‘okumu ‘ia ai ‘elua mau nūpepa kū‘oko‘a, ‘o Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika lāua ‘o Ka Nupepa Kuokoa. ‘O Kāwika Kalākaua kekahi luna ho‘oponopono o kaHoku, me kekahi mau nūpepa ‘ē a‘e, a pēlā i kapa ‘ia ai kona inoa ‘o “Ka Mō‘ī Luna Ho‘oponopono.” A ‘o ke Kuokoa, ‘o ia nō ka nūpepa i ‘oi loa aku ai ka lō‘ihi o ka pa‘i ‘ana, mai ka 1861 a hiki i ka makahiki 1927. He lau nā nūpepa like ‘ole i ho‘opuka ‘ia mai ka 1861 aku, a hiki i Ka Hoku o Hawaiʻi, he nūpepa o Hilo, a ‘o ia nō ka nūpepa ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i hope loa; pau ka ho‘opuka ‘ana i ka 1948. I loko o nā makahiki he 114 i ho‘opuka ‘ia ai nā nūpepa he 100 a ‘oi, ma kahi o ka 125,000 nā ‘ao‘ao i pa‘i ‘ia. A ma waena o ia mau ‘ao‘ao, he 75,000 ka nui i loa‘a ma ka pūnaewele ma www.nupepa.org a me www.papakilodatabase.com.
King Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III
The Independent Newspaper Nupepa Kuokoa
Institute of Hawaiiian Language Research and Translation (IHLRT)
Opening of the Institute of the Hawaiian Language Research and Translation (IHLRT) at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa in June 2016 provides a new Hawaiʻian-English language database of an expanding number of articles. By increasing access to science-oriented articles in English and Hawaiian, this database provides historical, cultural, and place-based resources for educators and scientists. Voices from Native Hawaiian and viewpoints are also integrated into place-based STEM education, so that we can look to the past for guidance as we move towards a sustainable future.
To “Cultivate Hawaiian Knowledge” is the goal of the Institute of Hawaiian Language Research and Translation (IHLRT). This organization was led by Puakea Nogelmeier, professor of Hawaiian Language at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. It is an invaluable resource for anyone to find and utilize historical Hawaiian knowledge, one of the largest sources of information being the newspapers published in Hawaiian for over a century. A signature project of IHLRT is the research and translation of these historical materials. Explore the website: http://ihlrt.seagrant.soest.hawaii.edu/
Ma ka wehena i ke Keʻena Noiʻi a Unuhi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi (IHLRT) ma ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Mānoa i ka mahina ʻo Iune 2016, ua lako i kekahi waihona hou o nā ʻatikala ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi a Pelekania hoʻi, a ke laupaʻi mau nei ka waihona. Ma o ka hoʻolako ʻana i nā ʻatikala e pili ana i ke akeakamai ma ka ʻōlelo Pelekania a me ka ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi, ke hoʻolako nei kēia waihona i nā kumuwaiwai no ka moʻolelo, ka moʻomeheu, a me ka ʻike ʻāina Hawaiʻi no nā kumu a me nā kānaka noiʻi akeakamai. Hoʻopili ʻia nā leo a me nā kuanaʻike o nā Hawaiʻi i ka hoʻonaʻauao o ke ʻano STEM e pili ana i ka ʻike ʻāina. Pēlā e makaʻala ai i nā haʻawina o hope i mea e holomua ai i ke ala kūpono i kēia mua aku.
ʻO ka mahi ʻike Hawaiʻi ka pahuhopu o ke Keʻena Noiʻi a Unuhi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi. Ua alakaʻi ʻia kēia papahana e Puakea Nogelmeier, he polopeka ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi ma ke Kulanui o Hawaiʻi ma Mānoa. He kumu waiwai koʻikoʻi kēia papahana e ʻimi a hoʻohana ai ka poʻe like ʻole i ka ʻike Hawaiʻi kahiko. ʻO kēia kumu waiwai hoʻi kekahi o nā waihona nui loa o ka ʻikena mai nā nūpepa ʻōlelo Hawaiʻi i paʻi ʻia i loko o ke kenekulia hoʻokahi a ʻoi. ʻO ka noiʻi a me ka unuhi i kēia mau palapala kahiko kekahi pahuhopu koʻikoʻi o ke Keʻena Noiʻi a Unuhi ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi. E mākaʻikaʻi i ka paena pūnaewele ma: http://ihlrt.seagrant.soest.hawaii.edu/.
- Hawaiian language websites
- Digital book: Science for Children (O ke akamai no na kamalii)
The Legacy of Hawaiian Literacy by Puakea, Nogelmeier, 2017
Lessons from a thousand years of island sustainability by Sam ʻOhu Gon III, 2014
"Ka Waiwai O Ka Wai" Keynote by Dr. Puakea Nogelmeier & ʻAnoʻilani Aga, July 27, 2017