More information to dig deeper into the topics covered in Imua, Me Ka Hopo Ole,Forward, without Fear.”

Native Hawaiians

  1. Taira, Derek. “Embracing Education and Contesting Americanization: A Reexamination of Native Hawaiian Student Engagement in Territorial Hawai‘i’s Public Schools, 1920–1940.” History of Education Quarterly 58, no. 3 (2018): 361–391. DOI: 10.1017/heq.2018.15

Asian Immigrants & Citizenship:

  1. Hyun, Ji Soo. “‘Schools by and for Koreans‘: Korean Immigrants‘ Private Schooling Initiatives in Territorial Hawai‘i, 1906-1930,” History of Education, (2021): 1-23. DOI: 10.1080/0046760X.2021.1918268
  2. Tamura, Eileen. Americanization, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: The Nisei Generation in Hawaiʻi. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
  3. Stratton, Clif. Education for Empire: American Schools, Race, and the Paths of Good Citizenship. California: University of California Press, 2016.
  4. Ueda, Reed. “Second-Generation Civic America: Education, Citizenship, and the Children of Immigrants,” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 29, no.4 (Spring 1999): 661-681. DOI: 10.1162/002219599551859

Manual Training & Americanization

  1. Morgan, Michelle. “More Than Book Learning: Democracy and Vocational Education in the Territory of Hawaiʻi, 1900-1959,” ed. Glenn P. Lauzon in Educating a Working Society. North Carolina: Information Age Publishing, 2019.
  2. Taira, Derek. “Colonizing the Mind: Hawaiian History, Americanization, and Manual Training in Hawai‘i’s Public Schools, 1913-1940,” Teachers College Record 123, no.8 (2021).


  1. Asato, Noriko. Teaching Mikadoism : the Attack on Japanese Language Schools in Hawai‘i, California, and Washington, 1919-1927. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2006.
  2. Hughes, Judith R. “The Demise of the English Standard School in Hawaiʻi,” The Hawaiian Journal of History 27 (1993): 65-89.


  1. Bernard K. Hyams, “School Teachers as Agents of Cultural Imperialism in Territorial Hawaii,” The Journal of Pacific History 20, no.4 (October 1985): 202-219.
  2. Morgan, Michelle. “Americanizing the Teachers: Identity, Citizenship, and the Teaching Corps in Hawaiʻi, 1900-1941,” Western Historical Quarterly 45 (Summer 2014): 147-167.
  3. Logan, Linda Louise. “Territorial Normal and Training School, 1895-1931: An Institutional History of Public Teacher Education in Hawaii.” diss. University of Hawai‘i-Mānoa, 1989.

General Reading: Territorial Period

  1. Fuchs, Lawrence H. Hawaii Pono: a social history. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1961.
  2. Imada, Adria L. Aloha America Hula Circuits through the U.S. Empire. Durham: Duke University Press, 2012.
  3. Kittelson, David. “A Bibliographical Essay on the Territory of Hawaii, 1900-1959.” The Journal of Pacific History 6, no.1 (1971): 195-218.
  4. McGregor, Davianna P. Nā Kuaʻāina : Living Hawaiian Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2007.
  5. Okamura, Jonathan Y. Raced to Death in 1920s Hawaiʻi: Injustice and Revenge in the Fukunaga Case. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2019.
  6. Rosa, John P. Local Story: The Massie/Kahahawai Case and the Culture of History. University of Hawai‘i Press, 2014.
  7. Stannard, David E. Honor Killing: Race, Rape, and Clarence Darrow’s Spectacular Last Case. New York: Penguin Books, 2006.
  8. Williams, Ronald Jr. “Race, Power, and the Dilemma of Democracy: Hawaiʻi’s First Territorial Legislature, 1901.” The Hawaiian Journal of History 49 (2015): 1-43.